ca. 5:30 -- "Digital" in French is "numerique".
ca. 43:00 ff -- combinational logic has outputs that depend only on the inputs at the time. Nothing in its past has any effect. Some examples are and gates, or gates, inverters. This is in contrast to sequential logic, in which the past does affect its current outputs. That is, it has some kind of memory of what has happened before. The flip-flop is an example.
1.07:03 -- When he says "finite time" he means "nonzero time". Physicists and engineers have this bad habit of saying "finite" when they mean "nonzero". I think they are trying to contrast it to "infinitesimal", which is just an idea and does not exist in the real-number system. He will do this again several times.
ca. 1.09:00 -- Propagation delay time is important. It is the time between when a circuit's inputs change and when its outputs reflect that change.
ca. 1.10:30 -- He's talking about the bottom line of the slide here.